Influence of tempo-rhythmic structure of music on psychophysiological state of a person
Musical culture in its deep meaning has long gone beyond the circle of music lovers in the modern world. The widespread use of music to influence the human condition has now become almost total. The property of music to influence the human condition is now used in therapeutic sessions, advertising, movies, etc.
Insufficiently deeply studied by modern psychological science direction of music therapy and music suggestion brings, including unexpected results of the use of music to influence the state of consciousness, especially on a mass scale.The lack of recommendations, based on scientific research, allows you to choose a new musical “Kashpirovsky” and “Chumak” amateurish approach, which is positioned authoritarianism, implying that any product of this person has a designated property, regardless of compliance with the production technology. What emasculates the idea of proper use of music in the processes of positivation, therapy, rehabilitation and prevention of stress, depression and pathological tendencies of the psyche.
At the moment, the study of the influence of music as a separate direction is highlighted in the “music therapy”. Here we investigate the relationship of changes in the course of the disease with the music used during treatment. The emphasis is not so much on the music as on the “complex multi-level matrix” (Yu. Ryzhov), but on the vibrations of sound vibrations. Often it is the sound vibrations with numerical values of sound frequencies that resonate with a certain area of the brain. For example, “low beta-rhythm frequency of 15 Hz intensifies the normal state of waking consciousness. High beta-rhythm frequency of 30 Hz causes a condition similar to that which occurs after cocaine use. The 10.5 Hz alpha rhythm causes a state of deep relaxation.
According to some preliminary data in this state, the brain produces a large number of neural peptidov, boosting the immune system. Theta rhythm frequency of 7.5 Hz contributes to the emergence of a state characteristic of deep meditation. When the theta rhythm is low at 4 Hz, there is sometimes an experience called “travel outside the body”in the literature. At frequencies below 4 Hz, there is a strong desire to sleep, difficulty waking consciousness conservation” ( Goncharov, 2003) .
Almost all developments in the field of musical influence are carried out by physicians or, at best, psychologists. But almost every work contains references to the results of hardware studies, where the influence of individual sound frequencies or their totality, which is not music by definition, is measured. In Dahl’s dictionary, ” MUSIC is the art of a harmonious and consonant combination of sounds, both consecutive (melody, chant, voice) and joint (harmony, Concord, consonance), as well as art is in action.”
From here the name of the direction as “music therapy” is hasty and unreasonable though many therapists apply on the sessions of treatment and rehabilitation music in the classical formulation, but prefer to speak about positive influence of sounds of a violin or an organ.
In our opinion, the influence of music on the human condition should be studied taking into account all aspects of the musical structure. In the structure of a musical work we can distinguish the following:
– Body-motor aspect
– Emotional-dynamic aspect
– Reflexive-meditative aspect
– Suggestive-trance aspect
All aspects are directly related to the components of the internal structure of music. Component-structural analysis of music makes it possible to highlight the tempo-rhythmic, harmonic and melodic structure , which in turn also have the properties to emphasize the nuances of changes in the psychophysical state. This allows us to observe changes in the psychophysical state of a person throughout the sound of the musical work. In this case, we consider the influence of music only as a connection of musical sound with the psychophysical reaction of a person.
The bodily-motor aspect of the influence of music is the oldest in the chronology of the elements of the musical structure. This is due to the simplicity of reproduction of the plan – enough to knock a stick on the rotten inside of the log, and is already possible tempo-rhythmic pattern. Ancient man made such a discovery and used the results to accompany the rituals of initiation into the warriors, preparation for hunting, which meant the active inclusion of the bodily-motor component.
We associate it with the tempo-rhythmic component of the musical work. In music theory, t EMP is the speed at which a piece of music is performed. That is, the same work can be performed at different rates. Here the change of state depends on the speed of perception of music by a particular person. In our opinion, the discrepancy between the speed of music playback and the author’s intention removes a significant part of the influence of the musical work. For example, if Beethoven’s “Moonlight Sonata” is played at a dance pace, it will lose its romanticism and depth, which for several centuries plunges the listener into a special state of consciousness. It means that it is very important to impose all the structures of music on the appropriate, correct tempo. The choice of tempo should be determined by the author’s goals.
The pace of the March, about 90 – 100 beats per minute. Natural skin’s reaction in the experimental groups at concerts at the sounding of the March was arbitrary imitation of marching “on the spot”. But if in the case of the concert the stereotype of music perception could “work” for the audience, it should be said that in fact the March was created with the purpose to cause such a reaction in those who heard it. Naturally arising from the tradition of collective marching, the March awakens this desire quite naturally.
A more subtle organization of motor activity we create in music rhythmic patterns. The rhythm is the relation of the durations of sounds in their sequence. Uniting in certain sequences, the durations of sounds form rhythmic groups (figures) from which a rhythmic pattern is formed.
Tempo-rhythm creates its own special field of influence on psycho-bodily reactions. The most common human reaction in the field of tempo-rhythmic musical structure is dance. At youth discos, many dance compositions begin with the sounds of drummers(drums), which immediately indicates the pace, which is gradually superimposed rhythmic pattern.
Young people start dancing immediately, because their dance does not need anything else, emotionally-moving “release” will happen even if the drums will sound alone throughout the composition without harmonic and melodic support. However, African tribes and surviving tribes of the Northern peoples, as well as the Indians, in their famous rags successfully use the properties of a variety of tempo-rhythmic combinations performed exclusively on drums.
The drumbeat is the best illustration of the direct connection between the human condition and the tempo-rhythmic structure of music. During the experiments, which were conducted by us in groups of volunteers (30 – 120 people), it was discovered that the monophonic sound of the drum, in the form of beating a simple rhythm can awaken the bodily-motor aspect of the human reaction(to make the body dance – “the body started dancing”), when the pace reaches or exceeds the speed of the heartbeat (130-140 beats per minute).
At the same time, the slow pace, which is 2 – 3 times slower than the heart rate, is able to enter a person into a trance state. This property is used by the shamans for the introduction of this state of the people involved in shamanic rituals.
One of the main elements of the holotropic session is stimulating music(V. Kozlov). Session to the music of drums, were mostly increased physical activity. Even those from the “holonovel” who were passive in their bodily manifestations, were told that they were themselves shamans or Indian deities (depending on music). But they did not allow themselves to be physically included in the dance reproduced in consciousness because of various internal prohibitions, which at that time were not yet sufficiently developed. That is, the degree of inner emancipation determines the ratio of internal(emotional-shaped) and external(active motor) reactions to the sound of drums in incendiary rhythms.
Tempo-rhythmic structure of music can be used as a way to diagnose emotional enslavement and prohibitions associated with the body. We have noticed that a person who allows his body to respond accordingly to dance rhythms, has fewer prohibitions associated with the body. So to speak, around his body lower morale. But, if a person does not allow himself to be included in the sounding rhythm, then gradually, remaining in the zone of the rhythm(sound of music), his problem zones(control zones) make themselves felt. For example, if the impulse launched by the dance rhythm does not pass into the body because of emotional depression, the person very soon begins to get irritated, because the tension increases in the area of his protection. That is, the flow of impulses directed to the body should be blocked in the usual way, spending more resources than usual because of the increase in the intensity of impulses.